Kaagaz Ki Kashti

Our Approach

"All forms of corporal punishment are a fundamental breach of human rights. A slap is as detrimental to the child's right as grievous injury. Indeed there are no gradations since it must be seen that condoning so called 'small acts' actually lead to gross violations." - (NCPRC Working Group 2008). Kaagaz ki kashti is a solidarity among teachers, students, parents, relevant authorities and responsible citizens for eliminating corporal punishment in the schools of India. K3 aims to motivate and empower children, their parents and teachers to emancipate from corporal punishment, through our three ‘Ks’.



We run a number of community schools for children of migrant workers, aiming to mainstream them into government schools. Last year, we were celebrating our success as a number of ‘our’ children were accepted into public schools. However, this sense of achievement soured quickly when we found out that they were beaten up by their teachers almost on a daily basis. Although we were able to stop those teachers, we believe that all of India’s children deserve to grow up and learn in an environment free of fear and abuse, and launched Kaagaz ki kashti, our campaign against corporal punishment in the schools of India.

Kaagaz Ki Kashti (K3) is based on 3 Ks

Prerit Rana


We all must remember a childhood toy. That is ‘paper boat’. As soon as it started raining we used to make paper boats and float it where ever we found water. We hoped it would go far. But at times of heavy rain the kayak made of paper could not tolerate a heavy rain shower. So, simile goes here to describe a child who is as delicate as a paper boat and has just taken its first step in the hope of taking a long joyful and successful journey. How will the child be able to cross the river smiling and beaming?

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Corporal Punishment in India

Efforts in India

Understanding Corporal Punishment

UN Committee on the Rights of the Child defines Corporal Punishment as:
“any punishment in which physical force is used and intended to cause some degree of pain or discomfort, however light (...) In the view of the Committee, corporal punishment is invariably degrading. In addition, there are other non-physical forms of punishment that are also cruel and degrading and thus incompatible with the Convention”

Drivers behind the use of corporal punishment:
Prevailing attitudes among teachers that punishment is effective to control children’s behaviour
Lack of incentives for teachers to do ‘good job’
Frustrating environment especially in public schools, e.g. too high student-teacher ratios
Lack of school governance to respond to disruptive student behaviour and incidents
Larger context of (gender) violence and child abuse

Failure to implement and enforce

India accedes to the UN Convention on Rights of the Child (1989) which states that corporal punishment in schools violates human dignity
Delhi High Court judges that corporal punishment violates child’s dignity
National Charter for Children confirms children’s right to protection from all corporal punishment
NCPCR Guidelines on Ban of Corporal Punishment
Right of Children to Free & Compulsory Education Act bans corporal punishment
National Policy for Children prohibits corporal punishment in education

Efforts to ban Corporal Punishment in India

The Ministry of Women and Child Development published the first nationwide study on child abuse in India and found that 65% of children in India face corporal punishment at school (Kacker, L. et al 2007)

A study by the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights found that 99.9% of the students experienced corporal punishment, with little difference between boys and girls, or public and private schools (NCPCR 2012)

Childline India found that students experienced corporal punishment in almost 95% of 198 schools in 11 states; while only 6% of government and 4% of private schools did not use corporal punishment (India Today, 5 January 2012)

UNICEF’s Young Lives study found that 93% of 9 to 8 year-olds and 68% of 15 year-olds are punished by teacher during one week, 55% of children see or experience coproral punishment daily (Ogando & Pells 2015; UNICEF)

In 2017, Agrasar's survey found that....

Why we need to worry

Creates an environment of fear and abuse in children

(1) The pain and scars, and in some cases, fatal injuries or long-term health problems that are inflicted by corporal punishment, endanger the safety of India’s children
(2) It undermines the effort to provide children with a safe learning space
(3) Corporal punishment increases the struggle of India’s children to grow up in a safe environment, free from fear and abuse
(4) It also related to the overall context of domestic and gender-based violence in India

Undermines the very purpose of education

(1) Corporal punishment intimidates children, suppressing their intellectual curiosity
(2) It is ineffective to discipline children – it merely encourages conformist behaviour to avoid pain instead of helping students to focus their attention
(3) Exercising corporal punishment is a waste of time that could be spent elsewhere
(4) Corporal punishment undermines children’s trust and respect for teachers.

Foundation for aggressive and delinquent behaviour in adults

(1) The experience of corporal punishment at school correlates with aggressive, violent and delinquent behaviour in children’s later life
(2) It has correlations with mental health issues such as anxiety, depression and generally lower self-esteem
(3) It causes frustration and trauma in children, resulting in hostility and violent acts towards others
(4) Violent pattern of behaviour are later replicated in intimate and parenting relationships